Nothing is known about the facility before the outbreak began, except that it used to be part of the town's residential area.
After Woodbury was secured from walkers, facilities were being built or re-established to keep the citizens within its walls idle. One of these would be the Woodbury Research Facility, where the scientist and The Governor's advisor, Milton Mamet, were in charge on experimenting the Behavioral Patterns of the walkers.
The Governor enters The Research Facility to check on Milton's Progress on his Research about the walkers, with Michonne's decapitated Pet Walkers as specimens. They made a discovery that walkers can be used as repellent by restraining them and taking away their arms and jaws. Milton also added that they are starving in a much slower rate.
After Alerting The Governor that Michael Coleman is ready. The Governor drops Andrea off at Milton's lab. Milton conducted his experiment before Mr. Coleman reanimates. In the End, Mr. Coleman reanimated and was killed by Andrea.
After the events of "Welcome to the Tombs". The entire facility along with the rest of the town is abandoned.